Envy and Gratitude

Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946-1963 (The Writings of Melanie Klein, Volume 3)

Envy and Gratitude cover

Contains papers from 1946 until Klein’s death in 1960, and two papers published posthumously. Her major work, ‘Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms’, introduces the concept of the paranoid-schizoid position. Other papers show the interplay of the paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions in infant and adult development. In ‘Envy and Gratitude’, her last and probably most controversial major work, she introduces her theory of primary envy.


  • Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms (1946)
  • On the Theory of Anxiety and Guilt (1948)
  • On the Criteria for the Termination of a Psycho-Analysis (1950)
  • The Origins of Transference (1952)
  • The Mutual Influences in the Development of Ego and Id (1952)
  • Some Theoretical Conclusions Regarding the Emotional Life of the Infant (1952)
  • On Observing the Behaviour of Young Infants (1952)
  • The Psycho-Analytic Play Technique: Its History and Significance (1955)
  • On Identification (1955)
  • Envy and Gratitude (1957)
  • On the Development of Mental Functioning (1958)
  • Our Adult World and its Roots in Infancy (1959)
  • A Note on Depression in the Schizophrenic (1960)
  • On Mental Health (1960)
  • Some Reflections on The Oresteia (1963)
  • On the Sense of Loneliness (1963)

Short contributions:

  • The Importance of Words in Early Analysis (1927)
  • Note on ‘A Dream of Forensic Interest’ (1928)
  • Theoretical Deductions from an Analysis of Dementia Praecox in Early Infancy (1929)
  • Review of Woman’s Periodicity by Mary Chadwick (1933)
  • Some Psychological Considerations: A Comment (1942)


Published in Chinese (Beijing World Publishing Corporation), Czech (Triton), Danish (Hans Reitzels), French (Presses Universitaires de France), Finnish (Therapeia), German (Frommann-Holzboog), Greek (Metaichmio), Hebrew (Bookworm), Hungarian (Animula), Italian (Bollati Boringhieri), Japanese (Seishin Shobo), Polish (GWP), Portuguese (Imago in Brazil), Romanian (Trei), Russian (Piter Press), Spanish (Espasa Libros in Spain and Paidos in Argentina), Swedish (Stiftelsen), Turkish (Metis).