Reading list: Envy

Key papers by Klein 

For full references for Melanie Klein’s works see Melanie Klein’s publications.

1928 Klein, M. ‘Early stages of the Oedipus conflict’. Envy during the early Oedipus complex, manifest as desire to spoil the mother’s possessions.

1932 Klein, M. The Psychoanalysis of Children. A small child’s envious attacks on phantasied parental coitus.

1945 Klein, M. ‘The Oedipus complex in the light of early anxieties’. Envy of the mother in the Oedipus complex of both sexes.

1952 Klein, M. ‘The origins of transference’. The prototypical envy-provoking phantasy of the parents combined in everlasting mutual gratification.

1955 Klein, M. ‘On identification’. A literary example showing envy as an important factor in projective identification.

1957 Klein, M. ‘Envy and gratitude’. Klein’s seminal paper on envy and gratitude, where the two are first explicitly paired.

1959 Klein, M. ‘Our adult world and its roots in infancy’. A straightforward and comprehensive outline of the paired concepts of envy and gratitude.

Further exploration 

Abraham, K. (1919) ‘A particular form of neurotic resistance against the psycho-analytic method’, in Selected Papers on Psychoanalysis. London: Maresfield (1927), pp. 303-311.

Barrows, K. (2002) Ideas in Psychoanalysis: Envy. Cambridge: Icon Books. 

Bion, W. (1957) ‘On arrogance’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 39: 144-1456. 

Bion, W. (1959) ‘Attacks on linking’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 40: 308-315.

Bion, W. (1962) Learning from Experience. London: Heinemann. 

Britton, R. (1989) ‘The missing link: Parental sexuality in the Oedipus complex’, in J. Steiner (ed.) The Oedipus Complex Today. London: Karnac, pp. 83-101. 

Britton, R. (2003) ‘The ego-destructive superego’, in Sex, Death and the Superego. London: Karnac, pp. 117-128. 

Etchegoyen, O.R.H., Lopez, B.M. and Rabih, M. (1987) ‘On envy and how to interpret it’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 68:49-61. 

Freud, S. (1908) ‘On the sexual theories of children’. S.E. 9. London: Hogarth Press, pp. 207-226. 

Freud, S. (1915) ‘Instincts and their vicissitudes’. S.E. 14. London: Hogarth Press, pp. 111-140. 

Freud, S. (1921) ‘Group psychology and the analysis of the ego’. S.E. 18. London, Hogarth Press, pp. 65-143. 

Guntrip, H. (1961) Personality Structure and Human Interaction. London: Hogarth Press. 

Horney, K. (1936) ‘The problem of the negative therapeutic reaction’. Psychoanalytic Quarterly. 2: 29-44. 

Joffe, W. (1969) ‘A critical survey of the status of the envy concept’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 50: 533-545. 

Joseph, B. (1971) ‘A clinical contribution to the analysis of a perversion’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 52: 411-449. 

Joseph, B. (1975) ‘The patient who is difficult to reach’, in P.L. Giovancchini (ed.) Tactics and Techniques in Psychoanalytic Therapy, Vol. 2, Countertransference. New York: Jason Aronson, pp. 205-216. 

Joseph, B. (1982) ‘Addiction to near-death’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 63: 449-456. 

Joseph, B. (1986) ‘Envy in everyday life’. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. 2: 13-22. 

Klein, S. (1980) ‘Autistic phenomena in neurotic patients’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 61: 395-401. 

O’Shaughnessy, E. (1999) ‘Relating to the superego’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 80: 861. 

Riviere, J. (1932) ‘Jealousy as a mechanism of defence’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 13: 414-424. 

Rosenfeld, H. (1947) ‘Analysis of a schizophrenic state with depersonalization’, in Psychotic States. London: Hogarth Press, pp. 13-33. 

Rosenfeld, H. (1950) ‘Notes on the psychopathology of confusional states in chronic schizophrenias’, in Psychotic States. London: Hogarth Press, pp. 52-62. 

Rosenfeld, H. (1952) ‘Notes on the psychoanalysis of the superego conflict in an acute schizophrenic’, in Psychotic States. London: Hogarth Press, pp. 62-103. 

Rosenfeld, H. (1964a) ‘An investigation into the need of neurotic and psychotic patients to act out during analysis’, in Psychotic States. London: Hogarth Press, pp. 200-216. 

Rosenfeld, H. (1964b) ‘On the psychopathology of narcissism, a clinical approach’, in Psychotic States. London: Hogarth Press, pp. 169-179. 

Rosenfeld, H. (1971) ‘A clinical approach to the psychoanalytical theory of the life and death instinct: An investigation into the aggressive aspects of narcissism’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 52: 169-178. 

Rosenfeld, H. (1987) Impasse and Interpretation. London: Tavistock. 

Roth, P. and Lemma, A. (eds.) (2008) Envy and Gratitude Revisited. London: International Psychoanalytic Association. 

Segal, H. (1950) ‘Some aspects of the analysis of a schizophrenic’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 31: 268-278. 

Segal, H. (1964) Introduction to the Work of Melanie Klein. London: Hogarth Press. 

Sohn, L. (1985) ‘Narcissistic organization, projective identification, and the formation of the identificate’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 66: 201-213. 

Spillius, E. (1993) ‘Varieties of envious experience’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 74: 1199-1212. 

Spillius, E. (2007) Encounters with Melanie Klein: Selected Papers of Elizabeth Spillius. London: Routledge. 

Steiner, J. (1982) ‘Perverse relationships between parts of the self’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 63: 241-252. 

Steiner, J. (1993) Psychic Retreats: Pathological Organizations in Psychotic, Neurotic and Borderline Patients. London, Routledge. 

Zetel, E. (1958) ‘Review of Klein’s Envy and Gratitude’. Psychoanalytic Quarterly. 27: 409-412.