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Hans Thorner - melanie klein trust
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melanie klein trust

Melanie Klein Trust

Furthering the psychoanalytic theory
and technique of Melanie Klein

Hans Thorner

A selection of downloadable papers, reports and interviews. Filter by author, topic or type using the categories below or scroll down to browse the full list.

1921

At the beginning of 1921 Klein leaves her in-laws in Rosenburg and moves to Berlin. Other psychoanalysts have also left Hungary due to the intensifying anti-Semitic climate, including Sándor Rádo, Alexander, Schott and Balint.

After a few weeks spent in a pension in Grunerwald, Klein moves to Cunostrasse, a drab and uninspiring area. She has Erich with her, now six years old. Melitta, aged 17, is finishing her studies in Budapest, and Hans, aged 14, is at boarding school.

Berlin is the most thriving psychoanalytic forum of the day. The first psychoanalytic clinic was opened in 1920, and training is becoming increasingly rigorous and structured, with training analysis and required supervision.

In February Klein delivers her first psychoanalytic paper to the Berlin Society on 'Felix’s' learning inhibitions. It is possible, though highly uncertain, that 'Felix' is in fact her son Hans.

Klein publishes an expanded version of her 1919 paper on Erich, her son now disguised as 'Fritz.'

John Steiner’s clear style of writing, emerging from observations made in his clinical practice, provides depth of insight, sensitivity and a real interest and concern for his patients. One measure of Steiner’s contribution to psychoanalysis is the number of terms and expressions he used that are now common currency, such as ‘pathological organisations of the personality’, ‘psychic retreats’, ‘emerging from psychic retreats’, ‘seeing and being seen’, and ‘patient-centred and analyst-centred interpretations’.

Ron Britton wins IPA award for Outstanding Scientific Achievement

Dr Ronald Britton is to be confered with the Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award by the International Psychoanalytic Association.  This will be presented at the IPA Congress to be held in Prague.

The IPA's Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award is confered by the Board, on the recommendation of the President, upon either a member or a non-member who, in the judgement of the President, has made an outstanding contribution to the relationship between psychoanalysis and other fields.

John Steiner’s clear style of writing, emerging from observations made in his clinical practice, provides depth of insight, sensitivity and a real interest and concern for his patients. One measure of Steiner’s contribution to psychoanalysis is the number of terms and expressions he used that are now common currency, such as ‘pathological organisations of the personality’, ‘psychic retreats’, ‘emerging from psychic retreats’, ‘seeing and being seen’, and ‘patient-centred and analyst-centred interpretations’.

El estilo de redacción claro que emerge de las observaciones que John Steiner realizara en su práctica clínica demuestra un conocimiento en profundidad y sensible, además de verdaderos interés y preocupación por sus pacientes. Un indicio de la contribución que realizó Steiner al psicoanálisis es el gran número de expresiones y términos que aplicó y que ahora se han vuelto de uso común, como por ejemplo ‘organizaciones patológicas de la personalidad’, ‘refugios psíquicos’, ‘emerger de refugios psíquicos’, ‘ver y ser visto’ e ‘interpretaciones enfocadas en el paciente y en el analista’.

Selección de artículos, informes y entrevistas listos para descargar. Vea la lista completa con el navegador, o seleccione según las categorías que se indican a continuación.

1921

A principios de 1921 Klein se separa de sus suegros en Rosenburg y pasa a instalarse en Berlín. Como consecuencia del entorno anti-semita que va en aumento, otros psicoanalistas también abandonaron Hungría, entre ellos Sándor Rádo, Alexander, Schott y Balint.

Después de pasar unas semanas en una posada de Grunerwald, Klein se traslada a una zona monótona y poco inspiradora conocida como Cunostrasse. Ella vive entonces con su hijo Erich de seis años de edad. Melitta, por ese entonces de 17 años, está finalizando sus estudios en Budapest, y Hans, de 14, se encuentra en un internado.

En ese momento, Berlín era el foro más floreciente en cuanto a psicoanálisis. La primera clínica fue inaugurada en 1920, y la formación didáctica en psicoanálisis se estaba tornando cada vez más rigurosa y estructurada, con análisis de capacitación y el requisito de supervisión.

En el mes de febrero Klein presenta su primer trabajo académico sobre psicoanálisis ante la Asociación de Berlín, acerca del caso de las inhibiciones de aprendizaje de 'Felix'. Existe la probabilidad, aunque no hay ninguna certeza al respecto, que 'Felix' sea en realidad su hijo Hans.

Klein publica una versión ampliada de su trabajo académico de 1919 sobre su hijo Erich, al que se hace referencia bajo el nombre ficticio de 'Fritz.'

1921

A principios de 1921 Klein se separa de sus suegros en Rosenburg y pasa a instalarse en Berlín. Como consecuencia del entorno anti-semita que va en aumento, otros psicoanalistas también abandonaron Hungría, entre ellos Sándor Rádo, Alexander, Schott y Balint.

Después de pasar unas semanas en una posada de Grunerwald, Klein se traslada a una zona monótona y poco inspiradora conocida como Cunostrasse. Ella vive entonces con su hijo Erich de seis años de edad. Melitta, por ese entonces de 17 años, está finalizando sus estudios en Budapest, y Hans, de 14, se encuentra en un internado.

En ese momento, Berlín era el foro más floreciente en cuanto a psicoanálisis. La primera clínica fue inaugurada en 1920, y la formación didáctica en psicoanálisis se estaba tornando cada vez más rigurosa y estructurada, con análisis de capacitación y el requisito de supervisión.

En el mes de febrero Klein presenta su primer trabajo académico sobre psicoanálisis ante la Asociación de Berlín, acerca del caso de las inhibiciones de aprendizaje de 'Felix'. Existe la probabilidad, aunque no hay ninguna certeza al respecto, que 'Felix' sea en realidad su hijo Hans.

Klein publica una versión ampliada de su trabajo académico de 1919 sobre su hijo Erich, al que se hace referencia bajo el nombre ficticio de 'Fritz.'

John Steiner’s clear style of writing, emerging from observations made in his clinical practice, provides depth of insight, sensitivity and a real interest and concern for his patients. One measure of Steiner’s contribution to psychoanalysis is the number of terms and expressions he used that are now common currency, such as ‘pathological organisations of the personality’, ‘psychic retreats’, ‘emerging from psychic retreats’, ‘seeing and being seen’, and ‘patient-centred and analyst-centred interpretations’.

A selection of downloadable papers, reports and interviews. Filter by author, topic or type using the categories below or scroll down to browse the full list.

Melanie Klein (1882–1960) is one of the founding figures of psychoanalysis. Building on the discoveries of Sigmund Freud, she recognised the centrality of the infant’s first relationships with its primary caregivers and, most significantly, she elucidated the early mental processes that build up a person’s inner emotional world. A pioneering child analyst from Central Europe, she was a controversial and powerful member of the British Psychoanalytical Society for 30 years and her influence is now worldwide.

Explore Melanie Klein's life by clicking on the boxes below.

Many of the images on this site are reproduced courtesy of the Wellcome Collection, which holds many of Melanie Klein's original papers. The archive is available to researchers on request - contact the Wellcome Library for more information.

You can also find out more about Klein's life, including films, audio recordings, written recollections and her autobiographical writings, in the Audio and video and Downloads sections of this website.

Biography

Wilfred Bion (1897-1979) was born in Muttra, northwest India, and was educated at boarding school in England. He was unhappy there, missing his parents, his Aya and the India he loved.

He fought in France in the Tank Regiment during the First World War and was awarded the DSO (Distinguished Service Order), and, by the French Government, the Légion d'Honneur.

After the war Bion took History at Queen's College, Oxford and later went on to study medicine at University College London. After qualifying as a doctor, he spent seven years at the Tavistock Clinic in London, training in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. While there he saw Samuel Beckett for therapeutic interviews. In 1938 he began his first training analysis with John Rickman. This was brought to an end by the outbreak of the Second World War, during which Bion worked with traumatised soldiers in military hospitals.

Around 1949 Bion entered into training analysis with Melanie Klein, and he became a full Member of the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1950.

Bion married twice and had three children; his daughter Parthenope went on to become a gifted analyst in Italy. In 1968, at the age of 71, Bion moved to California. He returned to England shortly before his death in 1979.

“It is when the world within us is destroyed, when it is dead and loveless, when our loved ones are in fragments, and we ourselves in helpless despair - it is then that we must recreate our world anew, reassemble the pieces, infuse life into dead fragments, recreate life.”

Segal’s influence was confirmed from an unexpected quarter when it was discovered that, unbeknown to her, this quotation from her paper ‘A psychoanalytical approach to aesthetics’ was used as a rallying call for the World Trade Center Mural Project. The project was set up following the terrorist attack of 11 September 2001 with the aim of creating a mural, 70 feet high, on the Equitable Building in New York as a symbol that life could survive destruction.

Betty Joseph (1917-2013) was a training and supervising analyst and child analyst in the British Psychoanalytical Society. She was one of the leading Kleinian thinkers of her generation along with Bion, Rosenfeld and Hanna Segal and an inspiring presence in the British Society for over 60 years.  She was very influenced by Bion whose originality and vision always impressed her.

Early thoughts on child analysis

The emotional development of children was of considerable interest from the earliest days of psychoanalysis, and Freud’s ‘Little Hans’ case is probably the most famous example of early work with children. It is probable that many of the group around Freud were young parents with concerns about their own children, and who would have wished that they could have the same kind of help as Little Hans was receiving. However, it was not until after the First World War that the first children became subjects of analytic treatment in their own right.

The challenge of analysing children

It was obvious that children could not be expected to manage an adult psychoanalytic setting of the couch and free associations and this was going to be a considerable problem. Other pioneers, in particular Anna Freud, felt at that time that children under the age of seven could not be helped directly, because before that age they could not co-operate with the adult technique.

What is the Melanie Klein Trust?

The Melanie Klein Trust was founded on 1 February 1955 to promote training and research in the psychoanalytic theory and technique adopted and practised by Melanie Klein, and 'developments thereof'. It is a charitable trust registered with the Charity Commissioners (Reg. No. 251672).

This section of the website is under development.

The drawing shown at the top of each page in this site is by Melanie Klein's 10-year-old patient, 'Richard', of his 'internal family'. Klein wrote a detailed account of Richard's psychoanalytic treatment, undertaken in 1941, in Narrative of a Child Analysis (Karnac, 1961).

The Writings of Melanie Klein, Volumes 1-4

Separate volumes are available in hardback and in paperback. First published in 1975 by Hogarth Press and The Institute of Psychoanalysis. Hardback edition now by Karnac. Paperback editions published by Vintage.

Biography

Wilfred Bion was born in Muttra, northwest India, and was educated at boarding school in England. He was unhappy there, missing his parents, his Aya and the India he loved.

He fought in France in the Tank Regiment during the First World War and was awarded the DSO (Distinguished Service Order), and, by the French Government, the Légion d'Honneur.

After the war Bion took History at Queen's College, Oxford and later went on to study medicine at University College London. After qualifying as a doctor, he spent seven years at the Tavistock Clinic in London, training in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. While there he saw Samuel Beckett for therapeutic interviews. In 1938 he began his first training analysis with John Rickman. This was brought to an end by the outbreak of the Second World War, during which Bion worked with traumatised soldiers in military hospitals.

Around 1949 Bion entered into training analysis with Melanie Klein, and he became a full Member of the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1950.

Bion married twice and had three children; his daughter Parthenope went on to become a gifted analyst in Italy. In 1968, at the age of 71, Bion moved to California. He returned to England shortly before his death in 1979.

Information about other key Kleinian contributors is in preparation, including:

By Elizabeth Bott Spillius, Jane Milton, Penelope Garvey, Cyril Couve, Deborah Steiner

Published by Routledge, 2011

The New Dictionary of Kleinian Thought provides a comprehensive and wholly accessible exposition of Kleinian ideas. Offering a thorough update of R D Hinshelwood’s highly acclaimed original, this book draws on the many developments in the field of Kleinian theory and practice since its publication.

The book first addresses twelve major themes of Kleinian psychoanalytic thinking in scholarly essays organised both historically and thematically. Themes discussed include:

  • unconscious phantasy, child analysis
  • the paranoid schizoid and depressive positions, the oedipus complex
  • projective identification, symbol formation.

Following this, entries are listed alphabetically, allowing the reader to find out about a particular theme - from Karl Abraham to Whole Object - and to delve as lightly or as deeply as needed. As such this book will be essential reading for psychoanalysts, psychotherapists as well as all those with an interest in Kleinian thought.

By John Steiner

Published by Routledge, 2011

Seeing and Being Seen: Emerging from a Psychic Retreat examines the themes that surface when considering clinical situations where patients feel stuck and where a failure to develop impedes the progress of analysis.

This book analyses the anxieties and challenges confronted by patients as they begin to emerge from the protection of psychic retreats. Divided into three parts, areas of discussion include:

  • embarrassment, shame, and humiliation
  • helplessness, power, and dominance
  • mourning, melancholia, and the repetition compulsion.

As well as offering fresh ideas, Steiner bases his creative and integrative efforts on previous contributions by psychoanalysts including Freud, Klein, Rosenfeld, and Bion. As such, this book will be of interest to psychoanalysts, clinical psychotherapists, and all those with an interest in the psychoanalytic field.

Edited by Elizabeth Spillius and Edna O'Shaugnessy

Published by Routledge, 2011

In this book Elizabeth Spillius and Edna O'Shaughnessy explore the development of the concept of projective identification, which had important antecedents in the work of Freud and others, but was given a specific name and definition by Melanie Klein. They describe Klein's published and unpublished views on the topic, and then consider the way the concept has been variously described, evolved, accepted, rejected and modified by analysts of different schools of thought and in various locations – Britain, Western Europe, North America and Latin America.

The authors believe that this unusually widespread interest in a particular concept and its varied ‘fate’ has occurred not only because of beliefs about its clinical usefulness in the psychoanalytic setting but also because projective identification is a universal aspect of human interaction and communication.

Projective Identification: The Fate of a Concept will appeal to any psychoanalyst or psychotherapist who uses the ideas of transference and counter-transference, as well as to academics wanting further insight into the evolution of this concept as it moves between different cultures and countries.

Edited by Chris Mawson

Published by Routledge, 2010

Bion Today explores how Bion’s work is used in contemporary settings; how his ideas have been applied at the level of the individual, the group and the organisation; and which phenomena have been made more comprehensible through the lenses of his concepts. The book introduces distinctive psychoanalytic contributions to show the ways in which distinguished analysts have explored and developed the ideas of Wilfred Bion.

Drawing on the contributors’ experience of using Bion’s ideas in clinical work, topics include:

  • an introduction to Bion
  • clarification of the inter-related concepts of countertransference and enactment
  • concepts integrating group and individual phenomena
  • clinical implications of Bion’s thought
  • Bion’s approach to psychoanalysis.

Bion Today will be a valuable resource for psychoanalysts, psychotherapists and all those who are interested in learning more about Bion’s thinking and his work.

Psychoanalysts continue to explore, expand and develop Melanie Klein's contribution to understanding the human mind. Her most immediate and gifted pupils, Wilfred Bion, Betty Joseph, Herbert Rosenfeld and Hanna Segal have, in their own right, made creative and original psychoanalytic contributions. There continue to be numerous and lively additions to the Kleinian body of thought, including not only the writers below but also Robin Anderson, Eric Brenman, Irma Brenman Pick, James Grotstein, Robert Hinshelwood, Susan Isaacs, Sydney Klein, Roger Money-Kyrle, Jean-Michel Quinodoz,  Heinrich Racker, Ignes Sodre and others whose details will be added to the list in due course.

Melanie Klein extended and developed Sigmund Freud’s understanding of the unconscious mind. By analysing children’s play, much as Freud had analysed dreams, she explored the uncharted territory of the mind of the infant, finding an early Oedipus complex and the earliest roots of the superego.

Klein's understanding of the child’s deepest fears, and its defences against them, enabled her to make original theoretical contributions to psychoanalysis, most notably the ‘paranoid-schizoid position’ and the ‘depressive position', and she showed how these primitive mental states impact on the adult. Her groundbreaking theories have been taken up and developed by later generations of psychoanalysts. Below is a selection of concepts developed by Klein and her followers.

Studies on Hysteria (1895)

This text, co-written by Freud and Josef Breuer, constitutes the foundation stone of psychoanalysis. In it Freud and Breuer describe five cases of hysteria they have treated over the course of a decade – one by Breuer, four by Freud – out of which clinical observations they formulate the key concepts of resistance, symbolism, and transference. Freud also introduces his innovative ‘free association,’ as a development from and improvement on hypnosis, which by this stage he has rejected as a therapeutic method.

Hysteria was an enigma to doctors and psychologists in the latter part of the 19th century, and, until the advent of psychoanalysis, the many sufferers of this strange condition remained an irresolvable problem. Studies on Hysteria is a revolutionary exposition of the illness, showing how, by allowing the patient to remember, re-live and, importantly, verbalise the emotional experience of a hidden neurotic trauma, the analyst could bring that trauma into the light of consciousness, thereby freeing the patient of its unconscious grip. One of the most famous and archetypal examples of this early psychoanalytic treatment of hysteria, Anna O., appears in this book, one of Breuer’s patients.

Karl Abraham

Born in 1877 in Germany, Abraham encountered psychoanalysis while training as a psychiatrist with Jung at the Burghölzli Mental Hospital in Zurich. He went on to become one of the pioneers of psychoanalysis, along with Freud, Jung, Jones and Ferenczi. Abraham’s most important and influential contributions to psychoanalysis are his theory of the pregenital phases of development, his concept of melancholia and obsessional neurosis, and his understanding of narcissism as an obstacle to analytic treatment. All of these ideas, in particular those around pregenital development and sadism, were to deeply influence Klein’s thinking, and to help her formulate her own brilliant picture of the child’s psychical experience.

Abraham founded the German Psychoanalytical Society in 1910, and analysed Klein for about 18 months from early 1924. He died in 1925, a year after being elected president of the International Psychoanalytical Association. He was only 48.

Love, Guilt and Reparation and Other Works 1921-1945 (The Writings of Melanie Klein, Volume 1)

Published in Chinese (PsyGarden), Finnish (Therapeia), French (Introuvables), German (Frommann-Holzboog), Greek (Paschalidis), Japanese (Seishin Shobo), Korean (Saemulgyul), Portuguese (in Brazil, published by Imago), Romanian (Trei), Russian (Ergo), Spanish (Espasa), Swedish (Stiftelsen), Turkish (Pusula Yayincil).

Italian translations in the Bollati Boringhieri pocketbook series:

  • Aggressivita, Angoscia, Senso di Colpa. ISBN 978-88-339-2370-3. Includes the following papers: 'Criminal Tendencies in Normal Children' (1927); 'Infantile Anxiety-Situations Reflected in a Work of Art and in the Creative Impulse' (1929); 'A Contribution to the Theory of Intellectual Inhibition' (1931); 'On Criminality' (1934).   
  • Il Mondo Interno del Bambino. ISBN 978-88-339-2318-5. Includes 'Some Theoretical Conclusions Regarding the Emotional Life of the Infant on Observing the Behaviour of Young Infants' and 'On the Development of Mental Functioning'.  

Ruth Riesenberg-Malcolm was an influential member of the group of senior Kleinian psychoanalysts who developed the application of the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion. She was an admired teacher in the UK and internationally. She was especially valued in Spanish speaking countries where she could teach in her native language. She presented papers at congresses and symposiums elaborating concepts as they are found in clinical practice. Her collected papers, On Bearing Unbearable States of Mind, expertly edited and introduced by Priscilla Roth, is a handbook of Kleinian clinical practice, illustrating how to understand and put these theories to use.

 

Caper is one of a small number of American psychoanalysts who has made original contributions to Kleinian theory. He is a graduate from Reed College and UCLA School of Medicine and trained at the Psychoanalytic Centre of California at that time very much influenced by the presence of Bion, Albert Mason and Jim Grotstein. He has written numerous papers, (see below) on psychoanalytic theory and technique and two important books. More recently he has moved to New York City.

In Immaterial Facts (1988) he gives an excellent outline of current Kleinian theory that is useful reading for the beginner and expert alike.

In A Mind of One’s Own (1999) he further develops his ideas and returns to many of the same themes 10 years later. (See Steiner, 'Review of A Mind of One’s Own' by Robert Caper' (2000, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 48, 637-643).

John Steiner, December 2012

The Originality of Melanie Klein: a conversation between Edna O'Shaughnessy and Ron Britton

The Originality of Melanie Klein from Melanie Klein Trust on Vimeo.

Life and career

Dr Hans Thorner, who was born in 1905 in Meissen, Germany, qualified as a doctor, specialising in neurology and psychiatry. With the Nazi persecution of Jews he left Germany, having lost his position in Berlin as a neurologist, and arrived in London in 1933. Following his first analysis there with Frieda Fromm Reichmann he trained at the British Psychoanalytical Society and qualified as a member in 1938. In London he was in analysis first with Melanie Klein and later with Wilfred Bion. He worked as a GP in a village on the outskirts of London and then, from 1942 to 1946, in Shenley Hospital as a Major in the British army treating psychoneurotic patients. Later he worked in the Cassel Hospital before taking up full-time private practice as a training analyst and supervisor. He made frequent visits to post-war Germany and also Brazil, supervising and lecturing on psychoanalysis. As a teacher he was renowned for the simplicity with which he conveyed complex psychoanalytical ideas, often cross-referencing to classical literature, the Bible and Greek mythology.

 

Thorner wrote numerous papers, some of which he had presented to the British Psychoanalytical Society between the late 1930s and the mid 1980s, and others which were published in Britain and/or in Germany. A few are highlighted in more detail below. Thorner also revised the original translation of Melanie Klein's The Psychoanalysis of Children (1975) in collaboration with Alix Strachey.

 

In his retirement Dr Thorner moved with his wife to join their children in the United States, where he died in 1991.

 

Psychoanalysts continue to explore, expand and develop Melanie Klein's contribution to understanding the human mind. Her most immediate and gifted pupils, Wilfred Bion, Betty Joseph, Herbert Rosenfeld and Hanna Segal have, in their own right, made creative and original psychoanalytic contributions. There continue to be numerous and lively additions to the Kleinian body of thought, including not only the writers below but also James Grotstein, Jean-Michel Quinodoz, Heinrich Racker and others whose details will be added to the list in due course.

Definition

Reparation is integral to the depressive position. It is grounded in love and respect for the separate other, and involves facing loss and damage and making efforts to repair and restore one's objects. Effective reparation involves a type and degree of guilt that is not so overwhelming as to induce despair, but can engender hope and concern. Reparation itself provides a way out of despair, by promoting virtuous cycles rather than vicious cycles in states of depression. It is a significant root in all creative activity and indeed a central part of development.

Biography

Wilfred Bion (1897-1979) was born in Muttra, northwest India, and was educated at boarding school in England. He was unhappy there, missing his parents, his Aya and the India he loved.

He fought in France in the Tank Regiment during the First World War and was awarded the DSO (Distinguished Service Order), and, by the French Government, the Légion d'Honneur.

After the war Bion took History at Queen's College, Oxford and later went on to study medicine at University College London. After qualifying as a doctor, he spent seven years at the Tavistock Clinic in London, training in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. While there he saw Samuel Beckett for therapeutic interviews. In 1938 he began his first training analysis with John Rickman. This was brought to an end by the outbreak of the Second World War, during which Bion worked with traumatised soldiers in military hospitals.

Around 1946 Bion entered into training analysis with Melanie Klein, and he became a full Member of the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1950.

Bion married twice and had three children; his daughter Parthenope went on to become a gifted analyst in Italy. In 1968, at the age of 71, Bion moved to California. He returned to England shortly before his death in 1979.

“It is when the world within us is destroyed, when it is dead and loveless, when our loved ones are in fragments, and we ourselves in helpless despair - it is then that we must recreate our world anew, reassemble the pieces, infuse life into dead fragments, recreate life.”

Segal’s influence was confirmed from an unexpected quarter when it was discovered that, unbeknown to her, this quotation from her paper ‘A psychoanalytical approach to aesthetics’ was used as a rallying call for the World Trade Center Mural Project. The project was set up following the terrorist attack of 11 September 2001 with the aim of creating a mural, 70 feet high, on the Equitable Building in New York as a symbol that life could survive destruction.

Betty Joseph (1917-2013) was a training and supervising analyst and child analyst in the British Psychoanalytical Society. She was one of the leading Kleinian thinkers of her generation along with Bion, Rosenfeld and Hanna Segal and an inspiring presence in the British Society for over 60 years.  She was very influenced by Bion whose originality and vision always impressed her.

Information about other key Kleinian contributors is in preparation, including:

Caper is one of a small number of American psychoanalysts who has made original contributions to Kleinian theory. He is a graduate from Reed College and UCLA School of Medicine and trained at the Psychoanalytic Centre of California at that time very much influenced by the presence of Bion, Albert Mason and Jim Grotstein. He has written numerous papers, (see below) on psychoanalytic theory and technique and two important books. More recently he has moved to New York City.

In Immaterial Facts (1988) he gives an excellent outline of current Kleinian theory that is useful reading for the beginner and expert alike.

In A Mind of One’s Own (1999) he further develops his ideas and returns to many of the same themes 10 years later. (See Steiner, 'Review of A Mind of One’s Own' by Robert Caper' (2000, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 48, 637-643).

John Steiner, December 2012

Ruth Riesenberg-Malcolm was an influential member of the group of senior Kleinian psychoanalysts who developed the application of the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion. She was an admired teacher in the UK and internationally. She was especially valued in Spanish speaking countries where she could teach in her native language. She presented papers at congresses and symposiums elaborating concepts as they are found in clinical practice. Her collected papers, On Bearing Unbearable States of Mind, expertly edited and introduced by Priscilla Roth, is a handbook of Kleinian clinical practice, illustrating how to understand and put these theories to use.

 

Life and career

Dr Hans Thorner, who was born in 1905 in Meissen, Germany, qualified as a doctor, specialising in neurology and psychiatry. With the Nazi persecution of Jews he left Germany, having lost his position in Berlin as a neurologist, and arrived in London in 1933. Following his first analysis there with Frieda Fromm Reichmann he trained at the British Psychoanalytical Society and qualified as a member in 1938. In London he was in analysis first with Melanie Klein and later with Wilfred Bion. He worked as a GP in a village on the outskirts of London and then, from 1942 to 1946, in Shenley Hospital as a Major in the British army treating psychoneurotic patients. Later he worked in the Cassel Hospital before taking up full-time private practice as a training analyst and supervisor. He made frequent visits to post-war Germany and also Brazil, supervising and lecturing on psychoanalysis. As a teacher he was renowned for the simplicity with which he conveyed complex psychoanalytical ideas, often cross-referencing to classical literature, the Bible and Greek mythology.

 

Thorner wrote numerous papers, some of which he had presented to the British Psychoanalytical Society between the late 1930s and the mid 1980s, and others which were published in Britain and/or in Germany. A few are highlighted in more detail below. Thorner also revised the original translation of Melanie Klein's The Psychoanalysis of Children (1975) in collaboration with Alix Strachey.

 

In his retirement Dr Thorner moved with his wife to join their children in the United States, where he died in 1991.

 

Melanie Klein (1882 – 1960) fue una de las fundadoras del psicoanálisis. Basándose en los descubrimientos de Sigmund Freud, ella advirtió la centralidad de las primeras relaciones del lactante con sus cuidadores primigenios, y lo más importante de su trabajo fue el esclarecimiento de los procesos mentales primitivos que constituyen el mundo emocional interior de cada persona. Klein fue una de las analistas infantiles pioneras en Europa Central –que luego se convertiría, durante treinta años, en una polémica y poderosa integrante de la Sociedad Británica de Psicoanálisis– cuya influencia, hoy en día, abarca al mundo entero.

Investigue sobre la vida de Melanie Klein cliqueando en los siguientes casilleros.

Muchas de las imágenes que se reproducen en este sitio se han obtenido como cortesía de la Colección Wellcome, que incluye numerosos documentos originales de Melanie Klein. A pedido expreso, los mismos están a disposición de los investigadores. Para obtener más información al respecto, se deberá contactar a la Biblioteca Wellcome.

También hay disponibles otros materiales sobre la vida de Klein -como filmaciones, grabaciones de audio, memorias escritas y notas autobiográficas- en las secciones Audio y Video y Descargas de este sitio.

Roger Ernle Money-Kyrle was a highly renowned and influential psychoanalyst with a background in philosophy and a wide-ranging intellect. His work in psychoanalysis was characterised by its breadth of scope, as well as its continuity with previous developments in psychoanalysis. His writing emerged as much from his deep thinking about philosophy, ethics and politics as from his clinical practice; it remains a rich psychoanalytic exploration of both the individual’s inner life, and the ways in which the individual psyche relates to the broader sphere of human society. Among Money-Kyrle’s analysands was Kleinian analyst Edna O’Shaughnessy, and he went on to influence many other major thinkers, notably Donald Meltzer and John Steiner. 

We are committed to ensuring everyone can use this website and have developed the site to suit different user needs. In this section we explore ideas for making the site more accessible and at the end have listed links to more detailed information on different devices. Please get in touch if you have ideas for improving the accessibility of the site or if you have any other questions – we’d like to hear from you.

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Primeras teorías sobre el análisis de niños

El desarrollo emocional de los niños suscitó un interés considerable en el psicoanálisis desde sus inicios, y el caso del "Pequeño Hans" de Freud quizás sea el ejemplo más famoso de los primeros trabajos con niños. Es probable que el grupo de trabajo de Freud haya estado compuesto por padres jóvenes preocupados acerca de sus propios hijos, que seguramente habrán deseado que sus niños tuvieran el mismo tipo de atención que el pequeño Hans estaba recibiendo. No obstante, no fue hasta después de la Primera Guerra Mundial que los primeros niños empezaron a recibir tratamiento analítico específico para ellos.

La Fundación Melanie Klein se fundó el 1 de febrero de 1955 con el propósito de fomentar la formación de especialistas y promover la investigación en relación con la teoría y técnica psicoanalíticas adoptadas y practicadas por Melanie Klein, así como el 'desarrollo de las mismas'. Se trata de una fundación benéfica, inscrita en la Comisión de Actividades Benéficas bajo el No. de registro 251672.

El aporte que Melanie Klein realizara para el mejor conocimiento de la mente humana ha sido, y continúa siendo, estudiado, ampliado y desarrollado por los psicoanalistas que la suceden. Sus discípulos más cercanos y talentosos –Wilfred Bion, Betty Joseph, Herbert Rosenfeld y Hanna Segal– también han realizado creativas y originales contribuciones al psicoanálisis como consecuencia de su mérito propio. Además de los autores que se mencionan a continuación, existen muchos otros aportes interesantes al pensamiento kleiniano como los de James Grotstein, Susan Isaacs, Sydney Klein, Jean-Michel Quinodoz, Heinrich Racker y otros que serán incluidos en la lista más adelante.

Information about other key Kleinian contributors is in preparation, including:

Caper es uno de los pocos psicoanalistas estadounidenses que han contribuido de manera original a la teoría kleiniana. Se graduó del instituto Reed College y de la facultad de medicina de la Universidad UCLA (Los Ángeles, California). Su formación como analista la cursó en el Centro Psicoanalítico de California, que en su momento tuvo una gran influencia debida a la presencia de Bion, Albert Mason y Jim Grotstein. Caper es autor de numerosos artículos (ver más abajo) sobre teoría y técnica psicoanalítica, así como de dos libros importantes. En los últimos tiempos se instaló a vivir en la ciudad de Nueva York.

En su libro Immaterial Facts [Hechos inmateriales] (1988), Caper brinda una excelente descripción de la teoría kleiniana actual que sirve de lectura tanto para principiantes como para expertos.

En la obra A Mind of One’s Own [La propia mente] (1999), Caper amplía el desarrollo de sus ideas y retoma muchos de los mismos temas diez años después. (Ver: Steiner, 'Reseña de “A Mind of One’s Own” de Robert Caper' (2000, Revista de la Asociación Psicoanalítica Estadounidense. 48, 637-643).

John Steiner, Diciembre 2012

Ruth Riesenberg-Malcolm fue miembro destacado del grupo de los primeros psicoanalistas kleinianos que desarrollaron la aplicación de las teorías de Melanie Klein y Wilfred Bion. Fue una docente respetada tanto en el Reino Unido como en el mundo entero. Se le tenía alta estima en países hispanohablantes donde podía dictar clases en su propia lengua madre. Escribió artículos que presentó en congresos y simposios, donde se elaboraban los conceptos con los que se encontraba en la práctica clínica. La compilación de sus trabajos bajo el título On Bearing Unbearable States of Mind [Soportar estados mentales insoportables], que fuera editada por la experta Priscilla Roth, quien también escribió el preámbulo, es un manual de la práctica clínica kleiniana, donde se ilustra cómo comprender y poner en uso esas teorías.

Riesenberg-Malcolm arribó a Londres como becaria Fullbright. Dada su anterior formación como psicoanalista en su Chile natal, era una clínica experta, que a una temprana edad ya ocupaba la dirección de una clínica psiquiátrica. Pronto se convirtió en analista didacta de la Sociedad Británica de Psicoanálisis y permaneció en Londres durante toda su carrera profesional. Al igual que muchos otros analistas de su generación, ella se dedicó a trabajar con niños y también con adultos, aunque el grueso de su trabajo es sobre adultos problemáticos y borderline, y que es objeto de descripción en los artículos de su autoría que fueron publicados.

Biografía

Wilfred Bion (1897-1979) nació en Muttra, al noroeste de India, y se formó en internados en Inglaterra, donde no fue feliz ya que echaba de menos a sus padres, su “Aya” y su querida India.

Fue combatiente en Francia durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, con el Regimiento Blindado Real, por lo que obtuvo una distinción “DSO” (Distinguished Service Order), y también fue condecorado por el gobierno francés con la Legión de Honor.

En la posguerra, Bion estudió historia en el Colegio Queen de Oxford, y pasó después a estudiar medicina en el instituto universitario de la capital inglesa University College London. Después de graduarse como doctor en medicina, permaneció durante siete años en la Clínica Tavistock de Londres capacitándose en psicoterapia psicoanalítica. Durante todo ese período acudió a entrevistas terapéuticas con Samuel Beckett. En el año 1938 comenzó su análisis didáctico con John Rickman, el que se vio interrumpido por el comienzo de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, durante la cual Bion se dedicó a trabajar en hospitales militares con soldados afectados por experiencias traumáticas.

Alrededor de 1946 Bion comenzó sesiones con Melanie Klein, y en 1950 se convirtió en miembro pleno de la Sociedad Británica de Psicoanálisis.

Bion contrajo matrimonio dos veces y fue padre de tres hijos. Su hija Parthenope se convertiría en una talentosa psicoanalista en Italia. A los 71 años de edad, en el año 1968, Bion se instaló en los Estados Unidos de América como residente del Estado de California y retornó a Inglaterra poco tiempo antes de su muerte, acaecida en el año 1979.

 “Es cuando nuestro mundo interior está destruido, muerto y carente de amor; y cuando nuestros seres queridos se vuelven fragmentos y estamos inmersos en una indefensa desesperación, que debemos crear nuestro mundo otra vez, juntando nuevamente las piezas e infundiendo vitalidad a los fragmentos muertos, para recrear la vida.”

La confirmación de la influencia de Segal llegó desde un ámbito totalmente inesperado al descubrirse que, sin que la propia autora tuviera conocimiento de ello, esta cita de su artículo intitulado 'A psychoanalytical approach to aesthetic' ['Enfoque psicoanalítico de la estética'] fue usada en una convocatoria para proyectos del mural del World Trade Center en la ciudad de Nueva York, lanzada después del ataque terrorista del 11 de septiembre de 2001, para la construcción (sobre el edificio conocido como ‘Equitable Building’) de un mural de setenta pies de altura, pensado para simbolizar la continuidad de la vida después de la destrucción.

Betty Joseph (1917-2013), analista didacta supervisora y analista infantil de la Sociedad Británica de Psicoanálisis, fue una de las principales representantes del kleinianismo de su generación, junto con Bion, Rosenfeld, y Hanna Segal, además de una presencia inspiradora dentro de la Sociedad Británica durante más de sesenta años. Joseph tuvo una influencia significativa de Bion, cuya visión y originalidad siempre admiró.  

Es un gran placer para nosotros presentar la nueva versión en español del web de Melanie Klein Trust

Es un gran placer para nosotros presentar la nueva versión en español del web de Melanie Klein Trust. Esperamos que sea un recurso útil para todos los hispano parlantes interesados en la vida, teoría y técnica de Klein.

Para visitar las páginas en español simplemente presione la bandera al final de la navegación izquierda. Las secciones incluyen: información acerca de la vida de Klein y sus teorías claves, biografías de los escritores que han contribuido e influenciado el pensamiento Kleiniano, bibliografía y artículos descargables.

Carrera e influencias

Priscilla Roth es analista didacta y supervisora de la Sociedad Británica de Psicoanálisis. Después de obtener su título en psicología en Berkeley trabajó como asistente de investigación en la Universidad de California en Berkeley. A principios de la década de 1970 se trasladó al Reino Unido para prepararse primero como psicoterapeuta de niños y adolescentes en la Clínica Tavistock de Londres, y al poco tiempo se formó como psicoanalista de adultos en la Sociedad Británica de Psicoanálisis.

En su formación analítica recibió la influencia de sus experiencias analíticas y de la supervisión de Leslie Sohn, Ruth Reisenberg-Malcom, Herbert Rosenfeld y Hanna Segal. También participó como miembro del taller de Betty Joseph durante treinta años, donde trabajó en estrecha colaboración con contemporáneos suyos como Ron Britton, Michael Feldman, John Steiner e Ignes Sodré.

Su preparación anterior, durante años, como psicoterapeuta de niños en el sistema de salud pública se pone de evidencia en su trabajo con adultos. Su trabajo clínico demuestra un profundo conocimiento del complejo intercambio entre el impacto de las experiencias del desarrollo temprano y el rol de la fantasía inconsciente en la conformación del desarrollo mental.

Vida y carrera

El Dr Hans Thorner, quien nació en 1905 en Meissen (Alemania) completó estudios de medicina con especialización en neurología y psiquiatría. Debido a la persecución que sufrían los judíos en la Alemania nazi, y a raíz de haber perdido su puesto de neurólogo en Berlín, Thorner partió para Londres en el año 1933. Después de su primer período de análisis allí, con Frieda Fromm Reichmann, se formó en la Sociedad Británica de Psicoanálisis de donde se convirtió en socio a partir de 1938. En Londres acudió a análisis con Melanie Klein primero y después con Wilfred Bion. Se desempeñó como médico general en un pueblo de las afueras de Londres, y posteriormente, entre los años 1942 y 1946, trabajó en el Hospital Shenley, en tratamientos con pacientes psico-neuróticos, mientras cumplía funciones con el grado de Mayor en el ejército británico. Más adelante trabajó en el Hospital Cassel, antes de comenzar con la práctica profesional independiente de tiempo completo como analista didacta y supervisor. Visitó en forma frecuente la Alemania de la posguerra, y también viajó a Brasil donde actuó como supervisor y profesor de psicoanálisis. Como docente se le atribuyó una gran simplicidad para trasmitir complejas ideas psicoanalíticas que a menudo presentaba a través de referencias a la literatura clásica con obras como la Biblia y otras surgidas de la mitología griega.  

Thorner escribió numerosos artículos, algunos de los cuales fueron presentados ante la Sociedad Británica de Psicoanálisis entre fines de la década de 1930 y mediados de la década de 1980, y otros fueron publicados en Gran Bretaña y también en Alemania. Algunos de ellos están aquí indicados en detalle más adelante. Thorner también fue revisor, junto con Alix Strachey, de la traducción original de la obra de Melanie Klein intitulada The Psychoanalysis of Children (1975) [El psicoanálisis de niños].

Al retirarse de la actividad, el Dr Thorner se trasladó con su esposa a los Estados Unidos de América para unirse a sus hijos, donde murió en el año 1991.

Melanie Klein amplió y desarrolló la interpretación de Freud acerca de la mente inconsciente. A través del análisis de juegos infantiles, así como Freud había analizado los sueños, Klein exploró el territorio desconocido de la mente del niño pequeño, donde encontró un complejo de Edipo temprano y las raíces originarias del superego.

La interpretación que Klein realizó de los temores más profundos del niño y sus defensas contra ellos le permitió realizar originales aportes teóricos al psicoanálisis. Entre ellos se destacan la ‘posición esquizoparanoide’ y la ‘posición depresiva', con las que fundamentó el efectos de tales estados mentales primitivos en el ser adulto. Las innovadoras teorías de Klein fueron adoptadas y desarrolladas por sucesivas generaciones de psicoanalistas. A continuación se presenta una selección de los conceptos desarrollados por Klein y sus seguidores.

Website now available in Spanish

The new Spanish version of the Melanie Klein Trust website is now available, providing a rich resource for Spanish-speakers around the world with an interest in Klein's work.

The Spanish content includes sections on Klein's life, key theories, profiles of writers who have contributed to and been influenced by Kleinian thought, references and downloadable papers. We will continue to add new translated material as the website develops.

Visit the Spanish homepage

Lea nuestro boletín informativo en español

Definición

La reparación y el deseo de reparar son parte integral de la posición depresiva. La reparación se basa en el sentimiento de amor y la aceptación de la existencia del objeto como separado de uno mismo. La reparación involucra enfrentar el sentimiento de perdida y daño y el hacer esfuerzos para reparar y restaurar nuestros objetos. La reparación efectiva implica un tipo y monto de culpa que no sea tan alto que lleve a la desesperación. Por el contrario, puede engendrar esperanza y preocupación respecto a los seres queridos. La reparación en si provee un camino para salir de la desesperanza, al promover un circulo beneficioso y no un circulo vicioso en  casos de depresión. La reparación y el deseo de reparar esa una raíz importante para todo actividad creativa y es, sin duda, una parte central del desarrollo humano.

Karl Abraham

Abraham, quien nació en Alemania en 1877, tuvo su primer contacto con el psicoanálisis mientras estudiaba psiquiatría con Jung en el Hospital Psiquiátrico Burghölzli de Zúrich. Al igual que Freud, Jung, Jones y Ferenczi, Abraham se convertiría luego en uno de los pioneros del psicoanálisis. Sus aportes más importantes e influyentes para el psicoanálisis fueron su teoría sobre las fases pregenitales del desarrollo, su concepto de la melancolía y la neurosis obsesiva, y su visión del narcisismo como obstáculo para el tratamiento analítico. Todas estas ideas, y en particular las relacionadas con el desarrollo pregenital y el sadismo, resultarían de gran influencia para el pensamiento de Melanie Klein, quien las utilizaría para formular su brillante panorama propio de lo que es la experiencia psíquica del niño.

Abraham fue fundador de la Sociedad Psicoanalítica Alemana en 1910, y desde principios de 1924 tuvo a Klein en análisis durante aproximadamente 18 meses. Murió en 1925, al año de haber sido electo presidente de la Asociación Psicoanalítica Internacional, cuando contaba con apenas 48 años de edad.

Estudios sobre la histeria [Studies on Hysteria] (1895)

Este texto, de coautoría de Freud y Josef Breuer, constituye la piedra fundacional del psicoanálisis. En el mismo, Freud y Breuer describen cinco casos de histeria que fueron tratados por ellos a lo largo de una década –uno por Breuer y cuatro por Freud-, y a partir de cuyas observaciones clínicas ellos formulan los conceptos clave de resistencia, simbolismo y transferencia. Freud también introduce su innovadora idea de “asociación libre” desarrollándola a partir de una hipnosis mejorada, la cual, para entonces, él ya había rechazado como método terapéutico.

Sobre finales del siglo XIX, la histeria representaba un enigma para médicos y psicólogos, y, hasta el advenimiento del psicoanálisis, los muchos pacientes que padecían esta extraña condición continuaban siendo un problema sin resolver. Estudios sobre la histeria es una exposición revolucionaria acerca de la enfermedad, que muestra cómo, al permitir al paciente recordar, revivir, y sobre todo verbalizar la experiencia emocional de un trauma neurótico oculto, el analista puede traer ese trauma a la luz de lo consciente, para de esa forma liberar al paciente de su sujeción con el inconsciente. Uno de los ejemplos arquetípicos y más conocidos de este tratamiento psicoanalítico temprano de la histeria, y que aparece en la obra que se comenta, es el caso de Anna O., una paciente de Breuer.

Recently published - The Selected Works of Elizabeth Spillius

Published by Routledge, Journeys in Psychoanalysis: The Selected Works of Elizabeth Spillius brings together a collection of Spillius's papers. Demonstrating the development of ideas during her career, it focuses in particular on issues of child psychoanalysis and Kleinian thought, as well as incorporating fascinating tangents on such topics as the work of Andre Green. 

Find out more on the Karnac website.

See Elizabeth Spillius' profile in the Writers section.

Find out what's new on the Melanie Klein Trust website, plus details of next year's conference.
 

El dibujo que aparece al inicio de cada página de este sitio fue realizado por un paciente de Melanie Klein de diez años de edad llamado 'Richard', y corresponde a su 'familia interna'. Klein escribió un relato detallado del tratamiento psicoanalítico de Richard, que tuvo lugar en el año 1941, y que fuera incluido en Narrative of a Child Analysis [Relato del psicoanálisis de un niño] (Karnac, 1961).

La Obra de Melanie Klein, Volúmenes 1 – 4

Están disponibles los volúmenes por separado, en tapa dura y en rústica. Primera edición en 1975 por Hogarth Press y el Instituto de Psicoanálisis. Edición actual en tapa dura, publicada por Karnac. Ediciones rústicas publicadas por Vintage.

By Elizabeth Bott Spillius, Jane Milton, Penelope Garvey, Cyril Couve, Deborah Steiner

Published by Routledge, 2011

The New Dictionary of Kleinian Thought provides a comprehensive and wholly accessible exposition of Kleinian ideas. Offering a thorough update of R D Hinshelwood’s highly acclaimed original, this book draws on the many developments in the field of Kleinian theory and practice since its publication.

The book first addresses twelve major themes of Kleinian psychoanalytic thinking in scholarly essays organised both historically and thematically. Themes discussed include:

  • unconscious phantasy, child analysis
  • the paranoid schizoid and depressive positions, the oedipus complex
  • projective identification, symbol formation.

Following this, entries are listed alphabetically, allowing the reader to find out about a particular theme - from Karl Abraham to Whole Object - and to delve as lightly or as deeply as needed. As such this book will be essential reading for psychoanalysts, psychotherapists as well as all those with an interest in Kleinian thought.

By John Steiner

Published by Routledge, 2011

Seeing and Being Seen: Emerging from a Psychic Retreat examines the themes that surface when considering clinical situations where patients feel stuck and where a failure to develop impedes the progress of analysis.

This book analyses the anxieties and challenges confronted by patients as they begin to emerge from the protection of psychic retreats. Divided into three parts, areas of discussion include:

  • embarrassment, shame, and humiliation
  • helplessness, power, and dominance
  • mourning, melancholia, and the repetition compulsion.

As well as offering fresh ideas, Steiner bases his creative and integrative efforts on previous contributions by psychoanalysts including Freud, Klein, Rosenfeld, and Bion. As such, this book will be of interest to psychoanalysts, clinical psychotherapists, and all those with an interest in the psychoanalytic field.

Edited by Elizabeth Spillius and Edna O'Shaugnessy

Published by Routledge, 2011

In this book Elizabeth Spillius and Edna O'Shaughnessy explore the development of the concept of projective identification, which had important antecedents in the work of Freud and others, but was given a specific name and definition by Melanie Klein. They describe Klein's published and unpublished views on the topic, and then consider the way the concept has been variously described, evolved, accepted, rejected and modified by analysts of different schools of thought and in various locations – Britain, Western Europe, North America and Latin America.

The authors believe that this unusually widespread interest in a particular concept and its varied ‘fate’ has occurred not only because of beliefs about its clinical usefulness in the psychoanalytic setting but also because projective identification is a universal aspect of human interaction and communication.

Projective Identification: The Fate of a Concept will appeal to any psychoanalyst or psychotherapist who uses the ideas of transference and counter-transference, as well as to academics wanting further insight into the evolution of this concept as it moves between different cultures and countries.

Edited by Chris Mawson

Published by Routledge, 2010

Bion Today explores how Bion’s work is used in contemporary settings; how his ideas have been applied at the level of the individual, the group and the organisation; and which phenomena have been made more comprehensible through the lenses of his concepts. The book introduces distinctive psychoanalytic contributions to show the ways in which distinguished analysts have explored and developed the ideas of Wilfred Bion.

Drawing on the contributors’ experience of using Bion’s ideas in clinical work, topics include:

  • an introduction to Bion
  • clarification of the inter-related concepts of countertransference and enactment
  • concepts integrating group and individual phenomena
  • clinical implications of Bion’s thought
  • Bion’s approach to psychoanalysis.

Bion Today will be a valuable resource for psychoanalysts, psychotherapists and all those who are interested in learning more about Bion’s thinking and his work.

Book now for the 2016 Melanie Klein Trust conference

Booking has now opened for next year's Melanie Klein Trust conference, 'The Effect of Omnipotence on the Analyst: Resonance, Dissonance or Silence', which will take place in London on Saturday 4 June 2016.

Chaired by John Steiner, the conference will include presentations by Francesca Hume and Ignês Sodré as well as ample opportunities for in-depth discussion and optional clinical seminars.

Find out more about the programme and book online

New video: Melanie Klein's granddaughters in conversation

We are delighted to present a new video in which Diana Brimblecombe and Hazel Bentall share memories of their grandmother, Melanie Klein, with psychoanalysts Michael Feldman and Richard Rusbridger.  Watch the video

Papers from the 2016 Melanie Klein Trust conference

We are pleased to report that four papers from the Melanie Klein Trust conference, held on 4 June 2016, are now availabe to download from the website.

The conference was entitled 'The Effect of Omnipotence on the Analyst, Resonance, Dissonance or Silence', and dealt with the way analysts are affected by their patients' behaviour and communications.

Follow the link below to download Francesca Hume's paper, 'Where shall the word be found, where will the word resound? Absence of resonance and the struggle to find the right register', with a discussion paper by Jane Milton, and Ignês Sodré's paper, 'Voices off: On fragmentation and the return of the split off', with a discussion paper by Richard Rusbridger.

Download the papers

Save the date: The next Melanie Klein Trust conference will take place on Satuday 16 June 2018, with optional clinical seminars on the Friday evening (15 June) and Sunday morning (17 June).

Descubre más sobre el nuevo contento en español en la página web de la Fundación Melanie Klein.

Melanie Klein extended and developed Sigmund Freud’s understanding of the unconscious mind. By analysing children’s play, much as Freud had analysed dreams, she explored the uncharted territory of the mind of the infant, finding an early Oedipus complex and the earliest roots of the superego.

Klein's understanding of the child’s deepest fears, and its defences against them, enabled her to make original theoretical contributions to psychoanalysis, most notably the ‘paranoid-schizoid position’ and the ‘depressive position', and she showed how these primitive mental states impact on the adult. Her groundbreaking theories have been taken up and developed by later generations of psychoanalysts. Below is a selection of concepts developed by Klein and her followers.

Melanie Klein (1882–1960) is one of the founding figures of psychoanalysis. Building on the discoveries of Sigmund Freud, she recognised the centrality of the infant’s first relationships with its primary caregivers and, most significantly, she elucidated the early mental processes that build up a person’s inner emotional world. A pioneering child analyst from Central Europe, she was a controversial and powerful member of the British Psychoanalytical Society for 30 years and her influence is now worldwide.

Explore Melanie Klein's life by clicking on the boxes below.

Many of the images on this site are reproduced courtesy of the Wellcome Collection, which holds many of Melanie Klein's original papers. The archive is available to researchers on request - contact the Wellcome Library for more information.

You can also find out more about Klein's life, including films, audio recordings, written recollections and her autobiographical writings, in the Audio and video and Downloads sections of this website.

Psychoanalysts continue to explore, expand and develop Melanie Klein's contribution to understanding the human mind. Her most immediate and gifted pupils, Wilfred Bion, Betty Joseph, Herbert Rosenfeld and Hanna Segal have, in their own right, made creative and original psychoanalytic contributions. There continue to be numerous and lively additions to the Kleinian body of thought, including not only the writers below but also James Grotstein, Jean-Michel Quinodoz, Heinrich Racker and others whose details will be added to the list in due course.

Information about other key Kleinian contributors is in preparation, including:

Caper is one of a small number of American psychoanalysts who has made original contributions to Kleinian theory. He is a graduate from Reed College and UCLA School of Medicine and trained at the Psychoanalytic Centre of California at that time very much influenced by the presence of Bion, Albert Mason and Jim Grotstein. He has written numerous papers, (see below) on psychoanalytic theory and technique and two important books. More recently he has moved to New York City.

In Immaterial Facts (1988) he gives an excellent outline of current Kleinian theory that is useful reading for the beginner and expert alike.

In A Mind of One’s Own (1999) he further develops his ideas and returns to many of the same themes 10 years later. (See Steiner, 'Review of A Mind of One’s Own' by Robert Caper' (2000, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 48, 637-643).

John Steiner, December 2012

Ruth Riesenberg-Malcolm was an influential member of the group of senior Kleinian psychoanalysts who developed the application of the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion. She was an admired teacher in the UK and internationally. She was especially valued in Spanish speaking countries where she could teach in her native language. She presented papers at congresses and symposiums elaborating concepts as they are found in clinical practice. Her collected papers, On Bearing Unbearable States of Mind, expertly edited and introduced by Priscilla Roth, is a handbook of Kleinian clinical practice, illustrating how to understand and put these theories to use.

 

Biography

Wilfred Bion (1897-1979) was born in Muttra, northwest India, and was educated at boarding school in England. He was unhappy there, missing his parents, his Aya and the India he loved.

He fought in France in the Tank Regiment during the First World War and was awarded the DSO (Distinguished Service Order), and, by the French Government, the Légion d'Honneur.

After the war Bion took History at Queen's College, Oxford and later went on to study medicine at University College London. After qualifying as a doctor, he spent seven years at the Tavistock Clinic in London, training in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. While there he saw Samuel Beckett for therapeutic interviews. In 1938 he began his first training analysis with John Rickman. This was brought to an end by the outbreak of the Second World War, during which Bion worked with traumatised soldiers in military hospitals.

Around 1946 Bion entered into training analysis with Melanie Klein, and he became a full Member of the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1950.

Bion married twice and had three children; his daughter Parthenope went on to become a gifted analyst in Italy. In 1968, at the age of 71, Bion moved to California. He returned to England shortly before his death in 1979.

“It is when the world within us is destroyed, when it is dead and loveless, when our loved ones are in fragments, and we ourselves in helpless despair - it is then that we must recreate our world anew, reassemble the pieces, infuse life into dead fragments, recreate life.”

Segal’s influence was confirmed from an unexpected quarter when it was discovered that, unbeknown to her, this quotation from her paper ‘A psychoanalytical approach to aesthetics’ was used as a rallying call for the World Trade Center Mural Project. The project was set up following the terrorist attack of 11 September 2001 with the aim of creating a mural, 70 feet high, on the Equitable Building in New York as a symbol that life could survive destruction.

Betty Joseph (1917-2013) was a training and supervising analyst and child analyst in the British Psychoanalytical Society. She was one of the leading Kleinian thinkers of her generation along with Bion, Rosenfeld and Hanna Segal and an inspiring presence in the British Society for over 60 years.  She was very influenced by Bion whose originality and vision always impressed her.

Life and career

Dr Hans Thorner, who was born in 1905 in Meissen, Germany, qualified as a doctor, specialising in neurology and psychiatry. With the Nazi persecution of Jews he left Germany, having lost his position in Berlin as a neurologist, and arrived in London in 1933. Following his first analysis there with Frieda Fromm Reichmann he trained at the British Psychoanalytical Society and qualified as a member in 1938. In London he was in analysis first with Melanie Klein and later with Wilfred Bion. He worked as a GP in a village on the outskirts of London and then, from 1942 to 1946, in Shenley Hospital as a Major in the British army treating psychoneurotic patients. Later he worked in the Cassel Hospital before taking up full-time private practice as a training analyst and supervisor. He made frequent visits to post-war Germany and also Brazil, supervising and lecturing on psychoanalysis. As a teacher he was renowned for the simplicity with which he conveyed complex psychoanalytical ideas, often cross-referencing to classical literature, the Bible and Greek mythology.

 

Thorner wrote numerous papers, some of which he had presented to the British Psychoanalytical Society between the late 1930s and the mid 1980s, and others which were published in Britain and/or in Germany. A few are highlighted in more detail below. Thorner also revised the original translation of Melanie Klein's The Psychoanalysis of Children (1975) in collaboration with Alix Strachey.

 

In his retirement Dr Thorner moved with his wife to join their children in the United States, where he died in 1991.

 

Roger Ernle Money-Kyrle was a highly renowned and influential psychoanalyst with a background in philosophy and a wide-ranging intellect. His work in psychoanalysis was characterised by its breadth of scope, as well as its continuity with previous developments in psychoanalysis. His writing emerged as much from his deep thinking about philosophy, ethics and politics as from his clinical practice; it remains a rich psychoanalytic exploration of both the individual’s inner life, and the ways in which the individual psyche relates to the broader sphere of human society. Among Money-Kyrle’s analysands was Kleinian analyst Edna O’Shaughnessy, and he went on to influence many other major thinkers, notably Donald Meltzer and John Steiner. 

Early thoughts on child analysis

The emotional development of children was of considerable interest from the earliest days of psychoanalysis, and Freud’s ‘Little Hans’ case is probably the most famous example of early work with children. It is probable that many of the group around Freud were young parents with concerns about their own children, and who would have wished that they could have the same kind of help as Little Hans was receiving. However, it was not until after the First World War that the first children became subjects of analytic treatment in their own right.

The challenge of analysing children

It was obvious that children could not be expected to manage an adult psychoanalytic setting of the couch and free associations and this was going to be a considerable problem. Other pioneers, in particular Anna Freud, felt at that time that children under the age of seven could not be helped directly, because before that age they could not co-operate with the adult technique.

The Writings of Melanie Klein, Volumes 1-4

Separate volumes are available in hardback and in paperback. First published in 1975 by Hogarth Press and The Institute of Psychoanalysis. Hardback edition now by Karnac. Paperback editions published by Vintage.

By Elizabeth Bott Spillius, Jane Milton, Penelope Garvey, Cyril Couve, Deborah Steiner

Published by Routledge, 2011

The New Dictionary of Kleinian Thought provides a comprehensive and wholly accessible exposition of Kleinian ideas. Offering a thorough update of R D Hinshelwood’s highly acclaimed original, this book draws on the many developments in the field of Kleinian theory and practice since its publication.

The book first addresses twelve major themes of Kleinian psychoanalytic thinking in scholarly essays organised both historically and thematically. Themes discussed include:

  • unconscious phantasy, child analysis
  • the paranoid schizoid and depressive positions, the oedipus complex
  • projective identification, symbol formation.

Following this, entries are listed alphabetically, allowing the reader to find out about a particular theme - from Karl Abraham to Whole Object - and to delve as lightly or as deeply as needed. As such this book will be essential reading for psychoanalysts, psychotherapists as well as all those with an interest in Kleinian thought.

By John Steiner

Published by Routledge, 2011

Seeing and Being Seen: Emerging from a Psychic Retreat examines the themes that surface when considering clinical situations where patients feel stuck and where a failure to develop impedes the progress of analysis.

This book analyses the anxieties and challenges confronted by patients as they begin to emerge from the protection of psychic retreats. Divided into three parts, areas of discussion include:

  • embarrassment, shame, and humiliation
  • helplessness, power, and dominance
  • mourning, melancholia, and the repetition compulsion.

As well as offering fresh ideas, Steiner bases his creative and integrative efforts on previous contributions by psychoanalysts including Freud, Klein, Rosenfeld, and Bion. As such, this book will be of interest to psychoanalysts, clinical psychotherapists, and all those with an interest in the psychoanalytic field.

Edited by Elizabeth Spillius and Edna O'Shaugnessy

Published by Routledge, 2011

In this book Elizabeth Spillius and Edna O'Shaughnessy explore the development of the concept of projective identification, which had important antecedents in the work of Freud and others, but was given a specific name and definition by Melanie Klein. They describe Klein's published and unpublished views on the topic, and then consider the way the concept has been variously described, evolved, accepted, rejected and modified by analysts of different schools of thought and in various locations – Britain, Western Europe, North America and Latin America.

The authors believe that this unusually widespread interest in a particular concept and its varied ‘fate’ has occurred not only because of beliefs about its clinical usefulness in the psychoanalytic setting but also because projective identification is a universal aspect of human interaction and communication.

Projective Identification: The Fate of a Concept will appeal to any psychoanalyst or psychotherapist who uses the ideas of transference and counter-transference, as well as to academics wanting further insight into the evolution of this concept as it moves between different cultures and countries.

Edited by Chris Mawson

Published by Routledge, 2010

Bion Today explores how Bion’s work is used in contemporary settings; how his ideas have been applied at the level of the individual, the group and the organisation; and which phenomena have been made more comprehensible through the lenses of his concepts. The book introduces distinctive psychoanalytic contributions to show the ways in which distinguished analysts have explored and developed the ideas of Wilfred Bion.

Drawing on the contributors’ experience of using Bion’s ideas in clinical work, topics include:

  • an introduction to Bion
  • clarification of the inter-related concepts of countertransference and enactment
  • concepts integrating group and individual phenomena
  • clinical implications of Bion’s thought
  • Bion’s approach to psychoanalysis.

Bion Today will be a valuable resource for psychoanalysts, psychotherapists and all those who are interested in learning more about Bion’s thinking and his work.

Recently published - Reading Klein

This December saw the publication of Reading Klein, by Margaret Rustin and Michael Rustin, in the New Library of Psychoanalysis series (Routledge).

Reading Klein aims to provide a full and accessible introduction to Klein’s work, interspersing substantial extracts from her own writing with the authors’ presentation of it.

Each chapter covers a major field of her work, showing its development over almost 40 years. The first part is concerned with her theoretical and clinical contributions. The second part sets out the contribution of her ideas to morality, to aesthetics, and to the understanding of society, introducing writing by her associates as well as herself.

Because of the clarity of its expositions and the selections which it contains from her own writings, this book should be a valuable resource for students, traineees, clinicians and other readers who are interested to explore Klein’s work. 

"This is an impressive exposition of Klein’s ideas. The authors write with great clarity and thoughtful understanding, making Klein accessible to a wide range of readers. A valuable source book and a real contribution to our knowledge of Klein’s psychoanalytic work."
Michael Feldman, Chair of Melanie Klein Trust

Visit the Routledge website for more information about Reading Klein

20 December 2016

New video: Melanie Klein's granddaughters in conversation

We are delighted to present a new video in which Diana Brimblecombe and Hazel Bentall share memories of their grandmother, Melanie Klein, with psychoanalysts Michael Feldman and Richard Rusbridger.  Watch the video

Nous vous remercions d'être venu consulter la version française du site du Melanie Klein Trust. Cette version est en construction, aussi continuerons-nous à ajouter de nouveaux contenus au fil de l'année à venir. Vous pouvez nous suivre sur Twitter ou vous inscrire sur notre liste de diffusion pour être informé de la mise en ligne de nouveaux contenus.

Definition

Reparation is integral to the depressive position. It is grounded in love and respect for the separate other, and involves facing loss and damage and making efforts to repair and restore one's objects. Effective reparation involves a type and degree of guilt that is not so overwhelming as to induce despair, but can engender hope and concern. Reparation itself provides a way out of despair, by promoting virtuous cycles rather than vicious cycles in states of depression. It is a significant root in all creative activity and indeed a central part of development.

New in the Writers section - profiles of Frances Tustin and Martha Harris

Profiles of two seminal figures in the field of child psychotherapy - Frances Tustin and Martha Harris - are now available in the Writers section.

Francis Tustin (1913-1994) was renowned for her pioneering work on the psychoanalytic treatment of childhood autism. She was the first to emphasise the central importance of the body for autistic children, and her work explored the idea that they used sensation-based mechanisms to protect themselves and generate a sense of self-sufficiency.

Martha (‘Mattie’) Harris (1920-1986) was a central figure in the development of child psychotherapy. She is known for her elaboration of the potential of infant observation, both as a cornerstone of psychoanalytic education and for its illumination of the early growth of the mind and understanding of primary relationships.

Both trained at the Tavistock Clinic, where from 1960 Harris was responsible for child psychotherapy training, contributing to its development in the UK and around the world.

Read the full profiles of Frances Tustin and Martha Harris.

15 March 2017

Our aims

The primary objects of the Melanie Klein Trust are:

  • To further and promote training and research in psychoanalytic theory and technique as adopted, developed and practised by Melanie Klein and 'developments thereof'.
  • To publish, promote and encourage the publication of books, articles, pamphlets, and papers which are based upon or may further the contributions to psychoanalytic theory and technique made by Melanie Klein.
  • To promote clinical work in psychoanalysis based upon the theory and and technique of Melanie Klein.
  • Generally to secure the furtherance and development of theory and technique of psychoanalysis adopted, developed and practised by Melanie Klein.
  • To do all this in any part of the world.

The definitions are reproduced from the The New Dictionary of Kleinian Thought by Elizabeth Bott Spillius, Jane Milton, Penelope Garvey, Cyril Couve and Deborah Steiner (Routledge, 2011).

Early life

Hanna Segal was born Hanna Poznanska into a cultured family in Lodz Poland, in 1918. She grew up in Warsaw - her parents, as was the culture, often away traveling. The loss of her sister Wanda when she was two and a half and her sister four was a great blow. She commented that she was something of a lonely child at home and so very invested in school.

The family moved to Geneva when she was 13, which was an introduction for her to different cultures and political situations. At 16 she chose to go back to Poland to do the Polish matura. She read all the Freud she could and read widely beyond. The family, expelled from Geneva, went to Paris where she joined them in 1939. In 1940 they left for the United Kingdom and she went to Edinburgh to finish her medical studies.

Bion’s work and development of Kleinian concepts

While studying at UCL Bion met Wilfred Trotter, another physician interested in the workings of the mind. Trotter’s Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War (1) was an important influence on Bion's interest in group mentality.

Bion’s work with traumatised soldiers during the Second World War, and his role working with Officer Selection Boards, helped form the basis of his ideas expressed later in the papers published as Experiences in Groups.

Bion is best known for the work stemming from his psychoanalysis of patients in psychotic states, by building on and expanding Klein’s concepts of projective identification and the two positions, paranoid-schizoid and depressive, in dynamic equilibrium, and by introducing the notion of Container-Contained (♀ ♂); and by elaborating a theory of thinking with emotional experience at its core. His best-known work, in addition to Experiences in Groups and other papers, are the four books of the sixties - Learning from Experience, Elements of Psycho-Analysis, Transformations, and Attention and Interpretation.

Bion considered that the development of his ideas concerning the inner world of the individual, particularly in relation to thinking and primitive unconscious phantasy, incorporated and transformed his earlier ideas about group mentality. However, he did not receive support from Melanie Klein for the latter ideas, nor for his explanation of countertransference in terms of an expanded version of Klein’s concept of projective identification.

Bion’s work and development of Kleinian concepts

While studying at UCL Bion met Wilfred Trotter, another physician interested in the workings of the mind. Trotter’s Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War (first published in 1916 by T. F. Unwin) was an important influence on Bion's interest in group mentality.

Bion’s work with traumatised soldiers during the Second World War, and his role working with Officer Selection Boards, helped form the basis of his ideas expressed later in the papers published as Experiences in Groups.

Bion is best known for the work stemming from his psychoanalysis of patients in psychotic states, by building on and expanding Klein’s concepts of projective identification and the two positions, paranoid-schizoid and depressive, in dynamic equilibrium, and by introducing the notion of Container-Contained (♀ ♂); and by elaborating a theory of thinking with emotional experience at its core. His best-known work, in addition to the 1961 Experiences in Groups and other papers, are the four books of the sixties - Learning from Experience, Elements of Psychoanalysis, Transformations, and Attention and Interpretation.

Bion considered that the development of his ideas concerning the inner world of the individual, particularly in relation to thinking and primitive unconscious phantasy, incorporated and transformed his earlier ideas about group mentality. However, he did not receive support from Melanie Klein for the latter ideas, nor for his explanation of countertransference in terms of an expanded version of Klein’s concept of projective identification.

Robin Anderson

Psychic equilibrium

What particularly distinguished Josephs work was her devotion to technique. She believed that only by paying the most rigorous attention to what the patient is not only saying but doing in the analytic session, together with the analysts own countertransference, can psychic reality emerge. This task is enormously difficult because of the way the patients structure and defenses will pull the analyst back to something which is more bearable, because psychic change and new insight always causes disturbance and creates a strong tendency to return to the old equilibrium.

Joseph emphasised the huge difficulty this poses for the analyst. A starting point for good technique demands of the analyst absolute personal honesty, not only because analysts want to believe that they are doing well and may be tempted to accept their patents reassuring agreement with their interpretations, but because of the way they are influenced by powerful and partly unconscious pressures by the patient to fit in with them in order to maintain the status quo. This countertransference needs to be rigorously scrutinised, however uncomfortable this may be.
 

Contents

Preface. Acknowledgements. Main Entries. General Entries. Bibliography.

Visit the Routledge website

Contents

Part I: Introduction to Bion. Mawson, Introduction: Bion Today: Thinking in the Field. O’Shaughnessy, Whose Bion?

Part II: Mainly Conceptual. Fisher, The Emotional Experience of K. Britton, The Pleasure Principle, the Reality Principle and the Uncertainty Principle. Bell, Bion: The Phenomenologist of Loss. Taylor, Anticipation and Interpretation. Cortiñ as, Science and Fiction in the Psychoanalytical Field.

Part III: Mainly Clinical. Ferro, Clinical Implications of Bion's Thought. O'Shaughnessy, Relating to the Superego. Levine, ‘The Consolation Which is Drawn from Truth:’ The Analysis of a Patient Unable to Suffer Experience. Grotstein, Clinical Vignette Encompassing Bion’s Technical Ideas. Mitrani, Taking the Transference: Some Technical Implications in Three Papers by Bion.

Part IV: Aesthetic. Dartington, W R Bion and T S Eliot. Sayers, Bion's Transformations: Art and Psychoanalysis.

Part V: Group Mentality. Armstrong, The Plurability of Experience. Garland, Group Therapy: Myth in the Service of Work. Lipgar, Learning from Bion’s Legacy to Groups. Gordon, Some Neglected Clinical Material from Bion’s Experiences in Groups.

Part VI: Later Bion. Vermote, Bion’s Critical Approach to Psychoanalysis. Waddell, ‘From Resemblance to Identity’: The Internal Narrative of a Fifty Minute Hour. Harris-Williams, ‘Underlying Pattern’ in Bion's Memoir of the Future. Karnac,

Appendix: W R Bion Bibliography.

Contents

Schafer, Foreword. Introduction.

Part I: Embarrassment, Shame, and Humiliation. The Anxiety of Being Seen: Narcissistic Pride and Narcissistic Humiliation. Gaze, Dominance, and Humiliation in the Schreber Case. Improvement and the Embarrassment of Tenderness. Transference to the Analyst as an Excluded Observer.

Part II: Helplessness, Power, and Dominance. The Struggle for Dominance in the Oedipus Situation. Helplessness and the Exercise of Power in the Analytic Session. Revenge and Resentment in the ‘Oedipus Situation’.

Part III: Mourning, Melancholia, and the Repetition Compulsion. The Conflict Between Mourning and Melancholia. Repetition Compulsion, Envy, and the Death Instinct.

References. Index.

Contents

Spillius, O'Shaughnessy, Foreword.

Part I: Melanie Klein's Work. Spillius, The Emergence of Klein's Idea of Projective Identification in Her Published and Unpublished Work. Klein, Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms.

Part II: Some British Kleinian Developments. Spillius, Developments by British Kleinian Analysts. Bion, Attacks on Linking. Rosenfeld, Contribution to the Psychopathology of Psychotic States: The Importance of Projective Identification in the Ego Structure and the Object Relations of the Psychotic Patient. Joseph, Projective Identification: Some Clinical Aspects. Feldman, Projective Identification: The Analyst's Involvement. Sodré, Who’s Who? Notes on Pathological Identifications.

Part III: The Plural Psychoanalytic Scene. Spillius, O'Shaughnessy, Introduction. The British Psychoanalytic Society. O'Shaughnessy, The Views of Contemporary Freudians and Independents about the Concept of Projective Identification. Sandler, The Concept of Projective Identification. Continental Europe. Spillius, Introduction. Hinz, Projective Identification: The Fate of the Concept in Germany. Canestri, Projective Identification: The Fate of the Concept in Italy and Spain. Quinodoz, Projective Identification in Contemporary French-Language Psychoanalysis. The United States. Spillius, Introduction. Schafer, Projective Identification in the USA: An Overview. Spillius, A Brief Review of Projective Identification in American Psychoanalytic Literature. Malin, Grotstein, Projective Identification in the Therapeutic Process. Ogden, On Projective Identification. Mason, Vicissitudes of Projective Identification. Latin America. Meyer, Introduction. Jarast, Projective Identification: Projections in Argentina. Massi, Projective Identification: Brazilian Variations of the Concept. Jordan-Moore, Projective Identification and the Weight of Intersubjectivity.

Spillius, O'Shaughnessy, Afterword.

Many of the images on this site are reproduced courtesy of the Wellcome Collection archive, which holds many of Melanie Klein's original papers. The archive is available to researchers on request - contact the Wellcome Library for more information or visit the website for a description of the contents of the Melanie Klein archive.